Environmental Protection Agency Narragansett Bay Commission University of Rhode Island Office of Marine Programs

Estuarine Science


Fjords are valleys that have been cut deeper by moving glaciers and then invaded by the sea. They have a shallow barrier at their mouth that limits water exchange between the deeper waters of the fjord and the sea. They are narrow with steep sides and usually straight and long. Fjords are found in areas that have been covered by glaciers. Examples include regions along the coasts of Chile, New Zealand, Canada, Alaska, Greenland, Norway, Siberia, Scotland, and other countries.

Go to:   Coastal plain estuaries ~ Tectonic estuaries
Bar-built estuaries ~ Fjords

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"Estuaries Classified by Geologic Features"

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